14. The situation of the Albanians in Kosovo after the Second World War

In the post-war years until the mid-1960s Kosovar resistance was sustained against Yugoslav rule. It was carried out by a range of political groups including Adem Demaci’s Albanian unification movement. Simultaneously repressive policies were imposed on the Albanian population which included the use of violence during weapon collections and the active encouragement of the migration of about 100,000 Kosovo-Albanians to Turkey.
In July 1966 Aleksandar Rankovic, the Federal Minister of Internal Affairs, who had directed these repressive policies was removed from power and the situation gradually started to improve in Kosovo.

The Albanian population, and particularly the National Democratic Committee of Albanians, stubbornly maintained resistance to the reestablishment of Serbian power. Repression continued until 1966. The form this repression took was also through the arms collection in 1955-6, where 3000 (in some texts the same authors say 300,000) Albanians were beaten and 100 people died from torture and then 250,000 (in some texts the same authors say 400,000) Albanians were forcibly moved to Turkey from the beginning of the 1950s until 1966. After the fall of Aleksandar Ranković (1966), Albanians began to use their language and their flag more freely.

[Rexhepi, Fehmi and Frashër Demaj. Historia 5. Prishtina: Libri Shkollor, 2013, pages 85-98; Rexhepi, Fehmi. Historia 9. Libri Shkollor, 2013, pages 110-123, 156-174; Bajraktari, Jusuf, Fehmi Rexhepi and Frashër Demaj. Historia 10. Prishtina: Libri Shkollor, 2011, pages 154-157 and 193-199; Rexhepi, Fehmi and Frashër Demaj. Historia 11. Prishtina: Libri Shkollor, 2013, pages 159-163 and 208-211.]

There is nothing on the situation of the Albanians in Kosovo after the Second World War until the fall of Aleksandar Ranković (1966).

[Đurić, Đorđe and Momčilo Pavlović. Istorija 8. Belgrade: Zavod za udžbenike, 2010, page 137; Đurić, Đorđe and Momčilo Pavlović. Istorija 3. Belgrade: Zavod za udžbenike, 2010, pages 208, 235, 243, 245, 248.]

Regarding the situation of the Albanians between 1945 and 1966 when the Yugoslav authorities forced Albanians to move to Turkey using different forms of pressure, the numbers present in Kosovo history school books are considered to be exaggerated. From 1945 to the middle of the 1960s a range of political groups and organisations of Kosovo-Albanians resisted Yugoslav rule.
The leader among them was the illegal organisation, the National Democratic Committee of Albanians which, as other groups, soon dissolved. There were other illegal organisations which opposed Yugoslav rule, among the most significant of which was the Revolutionary Movement for the Union of the Albanians (‘Lëvizja Revolucionare për Bashkimin e Shqiptarëve’ or ‘LRBSh’ in Albanian), led by Adem Demaçi. At that time there were two political factions: one legal and one illegal. During the 1960s year-on-year amendments were approved in the Serbian and of Yugoslavian Constitutions in favour of Kosovo. In July 1966 the decision was taken for the second most powerful person – after Josip Broz Tito – in the Yugoslav administration, the Minister for Internal Affairs Aleksandar Ranković, to be removed from his post. This marked the end of the displacements of population and abuses like the mass weapon collection campaigns and similar things which had been features of the atmosphere of control of the Ranković period.

[Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo – A Short History. London: Pan Macmillan, 2002, pages 289-334; Schmitt, Oliver. Kosova:
histori e shkurtër e një treve qendrore ballkanike. Prishtina: Koha, 2012, pages 164-233; Fischer, Bernd.
Shqipëria gjatë Luftës, 1939-1945. Tirana: Çabej, 2000, pages 124-129; Krieger, Heike (ed.). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, 2-8; Surroi, Veton. Fadil Hoxha në vetën e parë. Prishtina: Koha, 2010, pages 233-255.]